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Theresa J. Thurmond Morris's picture

This article/story/essay is dedicated to Dirk Vander Ploeg,  Author/Entrepreneur and founding publisher of UFO Digest.

One might say we are dealing with Exopolitics because we are dealing with the unknown as the xenoverse.
 
This is dedicated to Dirk because I told him so!
Why? Because he dared to ask the question. TJ
 
There is a cosmological constant in space now that has been figured by our astronomers. This is said to reside on a hidden brane or surface that we in the past did not realize existed. 
 
We are now about proving that branes exist nesting next to each other with gaps in-between that are held in place by a constant nothing.
 
We will in the universal future try to explain, that which is already known by those who exist with contact with those who from the heavens came. Sounds like an overture in a symphony. That is what it could be compared too since the sciences that we all knew and loved in the 20th century are now outmoded.
Brane is short for membrane or that which is hidden in space is shortened to brane.
 
The present theory of the universe is now that we are in a constant in what is called a pocket of our universe. We are in a hot radiation era and we are supposedly dominated by a 9 billion year or more periods, which does not even exist in space.
 
So how can we tame our minds to believe in a period that only exists on earth in our own minds and ways of thinking based on our ancient ancestor’s ways of developing time that is based on the planets rotation around the sun in one solar system?
 
We are still about rotation around the sun and our seasons for planting our crops.
 
This was due to our ancestor’s survival for planting and herding. We were hunters and gatherers at one time in the past and we still base many of our belief systems on the past. 
 
It is now time for a change and I am here to be a part of this change in time and in space on earth.
 The string theory and super gravity had been formed to complete what was called the M Theory in the 1990’s. 
 
Tachyon is a particle that can move faster than light and has been used to teach people that work at such places as CERN in Switzerland.  It was learned that the string theory was more than nuclear particles and when joined with the super gravity and a graviton that was the troublesome quantum fro Einstein’s theory of gravity. 
 
The problem with cosmic strings and those of the string theory were that the cosmic strings were twisted and the fundamental strings were one-dimensional mathematical curves so to speak.
 
There is mass, charge and spin which is called quantized motions.  The problem for this is that the electrons, gravitons, and photons are much too small to see.
 
The mathematics of strings could be looped and joined like small rubber bands. Which causes loops and acts much in the same way as gravitons this allows for quantum gravity without infinities?
 
The build up at the closure can cause a knot in our string theory but as the vibrations occur or formed in the spin causing the particles to break away freely and to spread out.  This causes no singularities or infinities.  The basic laws of our universe deal with the sacred nine (9). This we have accepted as the law of nine in the cosmology theories of relativity dealing with gravitons or the equations of quantized vibrations of string with spatial dimensions of nine. This allows physicists to work with nine (9) dimensions, which is still a sacred number in our own world before we begin again with 0 and in our numbering system 10 as in 1010101010, which we use in our computers on earth.
 
Hidden dimensions that exist become a problem in science because studying and grouping that which cannot be seen is more like studying metaphysics.
 
We are going to learn that some things in life may seem only one dimension, or two or three dimensional when in other places of the universe we can see other dimensions that exist such as those of fourth, fifth, and sixth dimensions. This is how the brane system works when one can get past the learned way of thinking on earth.
 
We know that there is more to the universe than presently meets the eye at the end of the telescope just like we know that light can bend and that a rainbow exists sometimes depending on our perception and the water in the atmosphere along with the sunlight that is bending and working with our own cones in our eyes which has to do with out vision. Perception is one part of our own equation about the Branes that we cannot see but has to do with time and space that is bent in a non-gravity state of being and yet there is something that ebbs and flows like the waves of the ocean that deals with the dark energy and matter in space. These ebbs and flows are causing the pockets as the peaks and difficulties caused in and around the pockets and vibrations being caused in the universe.
 
The branes we can think of as layers or doughnuts in space. We know that our own galaxy as a hole that was once thought of as a black hole but there is light around the outside and now we are not sure there is a definite nothing or void. What if there is a something in the In-between that is called nothing because it cannot be seen but is actually a point in. our own galaxy that can cause a wormhole effect that can be opened and closed like a portal through space? The In-between can be opened and closed like a black hole or a wormhole. 
 
We use wormholes to travel in space and we stay as far away as possible from black holes because we who are physical and travel in spacecraft that are physical will be crushed. The wormholes on the other hand are like straws and act as funnels for us to travel through.
 
The branes are our symmetry for now to accept and explore our own universe that is aligned next to another and another like I said before they are like sheets on an outside line drying in the sun until a breeze comes along and flaps them together. They are each hanging on a separate line but next to each other in three’s that total nine. Now we have to learn who owns the lines and the sheets that are hanging for us to find in the metaverse.
 
It is the worm holes and the black holes that may be able to assist us in explaining why we can travel through the sheets when they are bent and yet the black holes are simply when the branes or sheets are touching but leave no space for us to pass through.
 
We are now using the term of quantum jitter for the vibrations that occur causing the branes in the metaverse to touch at certain places and not in others. We know that not all parts of a hanging sheet on a line will touch in all places at once due to the shape of the sheet and the curvature of the wind and the way that a sheet will act alone. The thin membrane we call a brane is similar in shape of something thin that can be bent in places. Our universe has been bent in places at various times causing peaks and mountains just like we have explosions on earth and with the magma that is in our core sooner or later the magma comes to the surface. This is the same way with the energy in the branes. There are many simple correlations on earth as are in space. We can continue to analyze the energy on earth to understand the energy in space. The various sheets are played like lines in a scale and the notes are on the lines and in spaces. So are the variations in music. We are also here and there and some of our regions of the universe are in the difficulties and in the in between that causes the lack of energy and gravity in the coital void that occurs. We will learn that there are forces in the universe that act like a snake and dragon that was once used on earth as forces that could not be controlled that would spit fire.
 
The radiation and matter that occurs or the kinetic energy converts to hot radiation in our Brane in space. 
 
Like attracts like and this quantum constant is official for those that are caring to study the branes in the fourth and fifth dimensions. A sudden bang or pop and reverse are what caused these sheets or branes to go back to where they belong.
 
 We should mention Gabriele Veneziano who invented the String Theory and was a CERN Theorist or is the one who founded the String Theory.  We are now discussing brane kinetic energy that comes and goes with the unknown force that some are calling the dark energy and the dark matter, which may or may not be the same. They could be as if the two snakes that when approaching each other form the two energies that curl around each other like our own DNA structure. Is that possible? What if we who are created in the universe hold the keys to our complete and entire universal picture to make us whole in our own existence? Then where does the kinetic energy come from? Is this the same spirit that keeps us alive?
 
What if our own DNA that has the 95% unknown xeno in us is equal and a part of the quantum energy that we use to decipher the universal whole in the metaverse inside the xenoverse or the bulk of the nothingness that existed prior to what we call the Big Bang that happened when the two sheets or branes clapped together. Then where did that energy come from if not from the xenoverse or the unknown energy?
 
We should begin that discussion at another meeting in the future.
 
Math and Philosophy are a part of the whole equation but not the whole thing that exists in the in-between.
 
We will begin to learn more about the tilt and the wobble of our own planet in our own galaxy in space and when we begin to understand more closer to home, and then we will be able to also recognize the energy and dark matter that controls the future of cosmology. We have times when our branes become the thinnest in space that is the In-between. Matter and energy are only parts of our xenoverse.
 
We can all agree that there are distortions in space and the waves that we are feeling are part of our branes in space that are riding the waves of the coital process.
 
The Big Bang was more like the Big Bong as it bounced back when our brane was slapped up against another and so on and so forth on down the line in this metaverse we may call the nine of the thirteen. Thirteen and Twenty-one String Theories all in a row when the coital energy of the snakes of the unknown come along and stretch our universe with their pull as they slither across our branes. This allows us to realize that there are more than up and down and backward and forward in our dimensions in space. There are more than four dimensions when this energy comes along and we have a quantum jitter as something slides across the sheets while they are flapping in the graviton wind of the metaverse. What is the coital process we speak of in the xenoverse?
 
Inflation can have warp regions in space that travel in all directions when these coital tales of energy and maybe even dense mater flow across our sheets as branes in space.
 
A scattering effect occurs when this happens and make unpolarized light polarized.
Consequently, isn’t it odd that we have thirteen detectors using DASI the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer used at the South Pole? See the WMAP pattern.  We are dealing with polarization imprint of gravitational waves on our own discovery of cosmic background waves in space. We are going to deal with the space dust that others who use spacecraft have used for many earth years as the nuclear fuel to fuel their spacecraft through the universe and through the wormholes in our universal brane. 
 
One might say that our astronomers can only see what is in front of them and this is maybe only 10% of our area in our universe. The other 90% is yet to be discovered.
 
We are just beginning to realize there may be something of a discovery such as Columbus found when he reached the shores of America. That that their world was not aware at that time of other beings. We are approaching a time when we may learn that we are not alone in the universe. Some of us already live with the understanding that we are not alone. Those in government positions that work among those “In the KNOW” are asked to not divulge the truth based on national security reasons. The only security we should be aware of is that of assisting secure our own future from extinction by smarter and older other beings in the universe that are not benevolent. We have some benevolent friends in space that are humanoid, more intelligent, and older than our own human species on earth.
 
They have come and gone without interrupting our own progress this time on earth. This was not always the case in the ancient past on earth. Some parts of the world had access and connections to those above. Some of us still do today. 
 
We have gravitational waves to think about in the dark dense soup of the past and unknown that sits outside the reasoning of our minds surging spirits that are attached with a string of energy back to our souls. Where exactly do our souls exist if not outside of our branes in this universe? We must come from somewhere that has not been found or seen in this universe.
 
Coital Sting Theory is a part of the strings of the sheets that are hanging when they are pulled for one reason or another based on what rubs up or pricks the sheet or brane.
 
I have been asked what “BRANE IN SPACE is” by my publisher on UFODigest.com.
 
So, I thought I would add some light reading and sources for those who might want to explore where all the UFOlogist are going in the latest “PIONEERING EFFORTS!”
 
THE INBETWEEN IN THE METAVERSE IN THE XENOVERSE
By TJ Thurmond Morris
 
Dirk Vander Ploeg, Founder/Publisher and author/entrepreneur a very important question for the times, asked me. “What is the Brane in Space?”
 
If something exist and is coming from somewhere then it must be going somewhere. 
If something does not exist and yet the non-existence can be known because it lies dormant in-between to something is that do exist then we can prove that somehow the something is got to both sides of the nothing in the in-between.
 
We are now embarking on explaining in the Brane in Space the In-between. TJ Thurmond Morris
 
The In-between sounds like something out of a fairy tale or metaphysics. This is a time on earth when the brane is the thinnest between the layers that exist in the metaverse.
 
We are going to be noting some variables that we may want to address in our way of thinking that regard the space in-between that which we regard as science and physics and quantum physics and metaphysics.
 
I will do my best to explain in words that, which is not yet explained on earth. There are those who want to know who are in academia along with my publisher of the UFO Digest and the PSI Talk which is a paranormal radio show.
 
There is a road sign in the world that leads to infinite possibilities and we call this the imagination. This is much like the variables that exist in the xenoverse.
 
The present language or words in etymology that have been used in cosmology or among the brightest theorists are. Brane and Bulk.
 
In the past on earth, there has been a normality and finality that many in academia and especially the scientific world could latch onto in their way of programming their minds that lies inside their brains. What they failed to realize is that the mind is only one part of the software housed in the hardware we call the brain.
 
The brain is where we expect to find the part of our hardware we call the brain. We know one exists because of all the years that our kind has performed autopsy reports that included knowing that the parts taken out of the body during an autopsy had a part called the brain. We all know anatomy of the human body-mind-spirit. It has been up to the medical world to perform operations on our body-mind-spirit in the past without knowing exactly where the spirit was located but knowing that one existed nonetheless. 
 
It is out spirit that travels throughout our body-mind-spirit units or vessels. It is the spirit that is the ether nether energy in the In-between of our complete hardwiring system we call the nervous system.
 
We cannot prove where the spirit exists but we take for granted that this is the portion of our existence that is the essence that exists that gives us the breath of life.
 
We still to this day have no idea where the spirit comes from. This is the way that our universe is at this time. We know that one exists but we cannot prove that it comes from somewhere else.
 
The universe is only one part of the metaverse that lives inside the unit we call the xenoverse. One might say that the brane in space is the invisible lining of the universe that has a spirit of its own.
 
The spirit in our body has a connection back to the source of energy that we call the soul. For many in the past who were writers and storytellers, there have been sayings that lead others to believe that our soul was inside our physical body-mind-spirit vessels or units.
 
We now know that we are spiritual beings that are connected to something much greater in spiritual energy that leads us back to our souls. 
 
We have a under current of energy that is something like that energy we can see in the air when there is a lightning storm. Lightning although normally we cannot feel it, see it, or touch it, we know that it can exist and now know what causes lightning.
 
This is the same way we will someday understand the universe as well. We cannot see it now in its total mass structure however, someday we will.
 
The fact that we are just now realizing that it may be possible that there truly is other intelligent beings in space will also support the argument that just because we cannot see, hear, touch, feel, and taste something does not mean it does not exist.
 
This is like asking several people from various countries to take a touch test with blindfolds on. We will then ask them to stand around an elephant and describe what they are touching. One might feel the trunk, one might feel the tail, while another may feel its leg and another the underbelly. Would they all explain the animal as being an elephant or something more similar to their own experiences that each can relate too in their own known life experiences.
 
This way of teaching by something that others have seen and experienced is sometimes the only way to teach and share what others may know about and others have not yet experienced.
 
This is now where cosmologists, astrophysicists, physicists, astronomers, and other qualified experts in their fields of expertise are finding themselves. Around something they cannot yet identify because they have nothing to compare the “Elephant in the Room too!” 
 
There is a slight change in the universe happening and the qualified experts and theorists cannot put their hands on it or wrap their minds around the whole thing we call the something in the room.
 
This something is what was once thought of as the place in space that the string theory and inflation would lead too in the universe. Some did not believe in D-branes or extra spatial dimensions. The present theory is that the universe is expanding outward from its present existence causing accelerated expansion.
 
Some are wondering if we will someday reverse our course like a large wave in the ocean that may be followed by six others since waves seem to always come in waves of seven’s (7). This is said to be based on the law of gravity and that the moon causes these waves on the oceans.
 
Do we believe this because we have set beside the ocean and counted them or do we believe because others have done so? Maybe we believe because we were taught in schools that were taught by professors who were taught these simple thoughts about life, gravity, and waves that exist on the ocean.
 
The thought process we have about everything is now called the “Theory of Everything” simply because we cannot prove there actually is an everything until we know what everything is actually in the universe and beyond.
 
The In-between and the Beyond are where we are now headed in our mass culture.
 
We have been quoted as using the words the Multilevel that is the possible infinite possibilities that exist outside the realm of what we know in cosmology and in science.
 
We are reaching the outcome of our own infinite possibilities which far exceed that which we call empirical science and now must stretch our imaginations to create something new and everlasting that exists outside the own black and dark matter of our own minds in the unknown or the Xeno.
 
If we are to believe in a cosmos then alternatively we must believe in the dark density of nothingness in space. Some now call this dark matter and dark density dark energy that cannot be explained or explored now in science.
 
We are presently looking at what was termed in the 80s as eternal inflation which inflation tracked backwards shrinks away to what is now thought to be 13.7 billion years ago in space. Some say that the creation touches on the topic of chaotic inflation. Some theorists such as Stephen Hawking have worked on developing a quantum field theory of how the space and time that we know might have been created from nothing or generic.
 
There is no proof yet on how something can come to be formed from nothing. This leads us to understand the expansion and inflationary processes in space that we are now able to explore with our telescopes and the String Theory and M Theory are only a part of this future equation but not the whole piece but only pieces to the pie or puzzle.
 
We are not accepting the created theory about the inflationary multiverse on earth regarding to space. We are learning that Quantum jumps can be similar to the jello like jitters that are among the pockets of space in the ebbs and flows of waves.
 
There is one problem time as we calculate our lives on earth are not the same in space. There is no oxygen to breathe in space for one thing. This throws off the way we travel in space and in wormholes that can warp space and what we presently regard as space-time.
 
We may only have 3 miles in our own atmosphere and this is where our time on earth ends.
 
We then have to rely on different principles and properties. We no longer rely on numbers but algorithms and our best time on nuclear cosmic computers cannot compute what cannot exist in space-time based on no atmosphere and that of dark matter that ebbs and flows in space pockets. We have time that bends just as we can with light and the lack of it in Quantum Physics and Quantum Entanglement.
 
We must learn that each dimension in space has it’s own pockets, ebbs, and flows, and that the forces that we create in Quantum Entanglement will roll the path of least resistance just like styles or paths we see on a journey over the Himalayan Mountains with vast terrains and mountains peaks. We must all learn the difference in areas around our own world in order to learn about the similarities in space and in the dark matter that lies ahead of us in other dimensions in what we call the metaverse.
 
Some call the studies in science the multiverse while others in the know call it the metaverse, which is the microcosm inside the xenoverse or the macrocosm.
 
The latest closest terms used by the brightest, we presently have being the brane and the bulk.
 
Therefore, we will now begin to work at their level of etymology and grouping the known to the unknown, which is also a part of the metaphysics that may incorporate the future if we can tolerate those who seem to not allow certain people to talk.
 
IF we will allow those of us who have had interaction with other intelligent being species such as the Nordics and Grays to go back to the spacecraft that has the connections to these other more superior beings who come and go in space, then we may have a chance to allow our governments to rely on the best scientists, physicists, and cosmologists the world can muster to work with those of us who are the communications officers for the fleet above that no one on earth as officially and publically recognized. Until then, we may as well play the parlor game called Anthropic Selection that presently has no hard and fast rules in empirical science.
 
Anthropo resembles man and seiche is a sudden large wave in science or on a lake.
 
Selenology is the study of the moon and it will take all three sayings to get out point across about the future of the fourth and fifth dimensions that exist.
 
We will have to begin teaching about the various branes in space that cause the In-between.
 
Anthropic reasoning and thinking is now where smartest scientists are are headed.
 
We now have the eternal inflation that exists with the bubbles in the ebbs and flows of the waves in space. We know that a marble at the top of a plateau will gradually find its way to the bottom of a terrain with a hole due to gravity on earth. It is the same in space without gravity due to the bulges caused from the pockets in spatial terrains of the dark energy. We have learned that we can predict wormholes in space. 
 
We will begin our Cosmology 101 for the future in space and dark matter with the study of the BRANES that exist called the universe overlays as blankets that can be blown like sheets in the wind.
 
Where does the wind come from in the metaverse to cause the inflation should be the next question to be addressed by those who want to approach new hypothesis and theories in the Quantum World of Entanglement.
 
Oh, what a web we weave when first we practiced in the world to deceive! This is what the academia of humankind offered us in the past based on post millennium ways of thinking on earth in the time that was created by our ancestors. 
Brane cosmology refers to several theories in particle physics and cosmology motivated by, but not exclusively derived from, superstring theory and M-theory.
This was posted on Copernicus Blogspot. 
 
MONDAY, JULY 21, 2008
 
The Mugging of Stanton Friedman
 
For those who may not know, Stanton Friedman is a nuclear physicist and one of the most articulate voices for the reality of UFOs as extraterrestrial craft. Two nights ago, he appeared on the 'Larry King' show which also featured skeptic Bill Nye ('the Science Guy' and member of the Skeptic Society) and an astronomer involved with SETI work.
 
While Stanton attempted to make his case, especially about the evidence for missile interference that occurred in 1967 in Montana, Nye kept interrupting and casting cutesy aspersions. Stanton attempted to defend his position and was promptly smacked down by King who barked, 'Don't interrupt, Stanton!'
 
As far as I could see, that was it. Following that "mugging" by King (who never should have had the likes of Nye on) one scarcely heard another cogent peep from Mr. Friedman. Which was most unfortunate?
 
As a person who has taught critical thinking myself, I was ashamed of the act the two skeptics put on. It distracted from what could have been a serious discussion, and ended as more of a row than anything meaningful.
 
The difficulty in formulating UFO hypotheses, and interpreting UFO reports, is a first-hand experience for me. Not only have I investigated other people's reports and published the results but also I have observed a "UFO"myself. The incident occurred in March of 1962 while at the opening of a shopping center in Carol City, Florida. While awaiting the start of festivities I happened to look up at the night sky, being the amateur astronomer that I was. Amazingly, I witnessed a brilliant orange disc, at least the same diameter as a full Moon, moving rapidly from north to south.
 
It hovered for two to three seconds above the crowd at the shopping center and I detected the odd "Oooh" or "Aaah" from random spectators. Thus, I knew I was not having a simple hallucination (at least not by myself!) The most ironic and notable thing to me was the complete absence of sound. No whirring, as one would expect from a helicopter's propeller blades, or engine noise. The object - if "object" it was - appeared to be a light source rather than just reflecting light from elsewhere. After about three seconds it took off due south at what I estimated to be an incredible speed. As a seasoned sky observer, even at the age of 16, I was able to quickly eliminate all known fabricated or natural objects from consideration. The exceptional luminous and dynamical behavior allowed this. Nevertheless, to this day I am not prepared to pinpoint a specific hypothesis in any dogmatic sense. Nor am I prepared to assert it as a "craft" from another planet.
 
To me, it was and remains a "UFO".
 
What IS a "UFO"? The late Prof. Allen J. Hynek (former Professor of Astronomy at Northwestern) offered the first truly scientific definition of the UFO:
 
“A UFO is the reported perception of an object or light seen in the sky, the appearance, trajectory and general dynamic behavior of which do not suggest a logical, conventional explanation and which is not only mystifying to the original percipients but remains unidentified, after close scrutiny of all available evidence by persons who are technically capable of making a common sense identification, if one were possible.”
 
A common misperception is that UFOs are “flying saucers” or space ships. However, this is actually only one possible hypothesis among several. The main thrust of Hynek's definition is one must not automatically jump to any conclusion that conflates the UFO with an extraterrestrial craft.
 
However, let us get back to Stanton Friedman and what he had to endure with Nye and the astronomer. To be sure, this is not the first time such an altercation has occurred, but with different subjects. It's interesting that not even the late Carl Sagan could refute Jacques Vallee's extensive reports (cf. Forbidden Science, North Atlantic Books, 1992) , nor did he even attempt to go after the sole UFO report in Edward U. Condon's Air Force commissioned Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects(1969, NY Times Books): Case 46, p. 396 from McMinnville Ore. (11 May, 1950) that concludes - and I quote, from p. 407:
 
"This is one of the few UFO reports in which all factors investigated: geometric, psychological and physical appear to be consistent with the assertion that an extraordinary flying object- silvery, metallic and disc shaped flew within sight of two witnesses. "
 
Vallee himself has also taken Sagan to task in this case, for proposing a scientific process: getting extraordinary evidence first, before forming a hypothesis based on existing investigations and doing an extraordinary investigation. Nowhere else in science, or its possible objects of inquiry, are we expected to start with extraordinary evidence (which usually is not available yet) then go to the process.
 
A perfect case is plasma double layers, which possibly occur in coronal arches and help to trigger solar flares. Despite the fact no one has proven these artifacts exist, they are regularly used to support the observations of certain solar flares.
 
So, here is where Sagan fell down, by allowing his skepticism to undermine his objectivity. Sagan himself has also been taken to task by the likes of astrophysicist Frank Tipler for instigating millions of dollars for planetary, or SETI research when "he hasn't demonstrated adequate criteria or justification for doing so". In particular, many of Sagan's papers to support or rev up funding for planetary explorations (like with the Viking probes) were entirely based on speculations to do with mathematical probabilities of life existing - say on Mars- rather than any inherent hard data for such. Such critiques could also be leveled at the astronomer skeptic who appeared alongside Nye.
 
Nye himself, sad to say, demonstrated the same promotion of skepticism for skepticism's sake in his appearance on King, which merely reinforces the sterility of his position. To be far more cogent, the REAL skeptic must take one-step further. If his adversary makes a claim, he needs to make a counter claim or offer an alternative hypothesis, to neutralize it.
 
Thus, if Nye did not accept Friedman's claim of an actual craft, the onus was on him to offer an alternative hypothesis as to what the interfering Montana UFO was.
 
It was, of course, acceptable for Bill Nye to simply withhold acceptance of Friedman et al's claim passively, but this usually makes the hard-edged skeptic position much more difficult to hold. If you adopt the passive stance, in other words, you really cannot be too aggressive in your take on the event, or use clever putdowns. You merely open yourself up as a target.
 
Something Mr. Friedman would no doubt have alluded to had he not been "mugged" (shushed) by Larry King earlier! 
 
[1] See Stahl, P.A.: Transient Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere - A Case Study, in The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 74, No. 3, June 1980. 
 
Specialized in space physics and solar physics, developed first astronomy curriculum for Caribbean secondary schools, have written five books - the most recent a Solar Physics monograph 'Selected Analyses in Solar Flare Plasma Dynamics'. I am currently working on sixth.
What is the meaning of the omega parameter in cosmology? (This is about Copernicus)
 
Brane and bulk
 
The central idea is that the visible, four-dimensional universe is restricted to a brane inside a higher-dimensional space, called the "bulk". The additional dimensions are compact, in which case the observed universe contains the extra dimensions, and then no reference to the bulk is appropriate in this context. In the bulk model, other branes may be moving through this bulk. Interactions with the bulk, and possibly with other branes, can influence our brane and thus introduce effects not seen in more standard cosmological models.
 
Why gravity is weak
 
As one of its attractive features, the model can explain the weakness of gravity relative to the other fundamental forces of nature, thus solving the so-called hierarchy problem. In the brane picture, the other three forces (electromagnetism and the weak and strong nuclear forces) are localized on the brane, but gravity has no such constraint and so much of its attractive power "leaks" into the bulk. Therefore, the force of gravity should appear significantly stronger on small (subatomic or at least sub-millimeter) scales, where less gravitational force has "leaked". Various experiments are currently underway to test this. [1]
Models of brane cosmology
 
The Randall-Sundrum (RS1 and RS2; see 5 dimensional warped geometry theories for a nontechnical explanation of RS1), pre-big bang, ekpyrotic and cyclic scenarios are particular models of brane cosmology, which have attracted a considerable amount of attention. The ekpyrotic theory hypothesizes that the origin of the observable universe occurred when two parallel branes collided. [2]
 
See also
Kaluza-Klein theory
M-theory
String theory
Loop quantum cosmology
 
References
^ Session D9 - Experimental Tests of Short Range Gravitation.
^ Musser, George; Minkel, JR (2002-02-11). "A Recycled Universe: Crashing branes and cosmic acceleration may power an infinite cycle in which our universe is but a phase". Scientific American Inc… Retrieved 2008-05-03
 
External links
Brax, Philippe; van de Bruck, Carsten (2003). "Cosmology and Brane Worlds: A Review". ArXiv.org e-Print archive. Retrieved January 1, 2006Cosmological consequences of the brane world scenario are reviewed in a pedagogical manner.
Langlois, David (2002). "Brane cosmology: an introduction". arXiv.org e-Print archive. Retrieved January 1, 2006. – These notes (32 pages) give an introductory review on brane cosmology.
 
Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios (2002). "Brane Cosmology". arXiv.org e-Print archive. Retrieved January 1, 2006– Lectures (24 pages) presented at the First Aegean Summer School on Cosmology, Samos, September 2001.
Brane cosmology on arxiv.org
Dimensional Shortcuts - evidence for sterile neutrino; (August 2007; Scientific American)
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