THE CASE AGAINST THE SINGLE BULLET THEORY:
WAS PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY SHOT BEFORE GOVERNOR JOHN B. CONNALLY?
By Roy L. Schaeffer
(Copyright 2012-2013, Roy Schaeffer - All Rights Reserved)
<Edited by Robert D. Morningstar>
The linchpin of the theory that a lone assassin assassinated President John F. Kennedy depends solely on the credibility of the Single Bullet Theory, also known (derogatorily) as “The Magic Bullet Theory.”
The Single Bullet Theory (or SBT), also called “The Magic Bullet Theory”, was created by Warren Commission attorney Arlen Specter (with Warren Commissioner Gerald Ford)..
The mass media, with the exception of Fox Cable News (and the History Channel) generally “fall into line” with the party-line SBT, but thinking people still ask:
“Is it correct?”
The entire Warren Commission theory is based on the premise that three bullets (and ONLY 3 bullets) were fired from a 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano rifle by Lee Harvey Oswald from a sniper’s lair on the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository.
The “Single Bullet Theory” (SBT) begins as the Presidential limousine turns from Houston to Elm Street where the Warren Commission supposes that ONLY one “lone assassin” was waiting. Their theory proposes that ONLY 3 shots were fired, in total (while ignoring witness testimony claiming as many as 6 to 9 shots fired, including several from the Grassy Knoll)..
According to the Warren Commission Report (WCR):
1. The first bullet fired at the President missed.
2. The second bullet currently known as the “Magic Bullet” CE-399 caused all seven wounds to both President Kennedy and Governor John B. Connally.
According to Warren Commission lawyer Arlen Specter, the 2nd bullet struck President Kennedy in his upper back <between the shoulder blades>, transited through his throat and continued its path, exiting from JFK’s throat going on to strike Governor John Connally in the back. According to Specter, the ‘Magic Bullet” transited through governor Connally’s back, through his rib cage, coming out through the front and then transiting through his right wrist and then ending up in his left thigh.
This explains to the reader exactly why Arlen Spector’s theory is also ridiculed and called “The Magic Bullet Theory,” for only in a world of magic (and fantasy) could anyone ever believe that such a thing could really happen, except through “magic.” In this case, it is the “black magic” of mass deception through disinformation, exclusion of evidence, exclusion of undesirable witnesses’ testimonies, and the performance of radical editing and alterations to the Zapruder Film to hide the real facts.
3. The WCR supposes that the third (3rd) bullet struck President Kennedy in the back of his head causing a massive explosion of his head as seen in frame Z-313 of the Abraham Zapruder film.
Over the decades, media supporters of the WCR and Arlen Specter’s theory make their assumptions appear to be “iron-clad,” but they actually they are not.
Quite to the contrary, my JFK research over 5 long decades on this issue proves otherwise.
The Main Deception - The Alteration of the Zapruder Film.
There are 486 frames in the Zapruder Film (aka The Z-Film), which was used by Specter and the Warren Commission as an accurate timepiece to support his theory. Because the Mannlicher-Carcano can only be fired a single shot at a time, reloading the next shot requires a minimum of 2.6 seconds minimum time consumed, between shots.
This interval of time, 2.6 seconds, requires (at least) 46.8 frames of the film because it takes 2.6 seconds @ 18 frames per second = 46.8 frames).
This knowledge and understanding its significance will prove important shortly.
According to the Warren Commission, the first shot missed and was fired sometime prior to the Presidential limousine passing behind the Stemmons Freeway road sign as seen in the Zapruder Film
In the early 1990s, I spoke personally with JFK Assassination witness and photographer, Phillip Willis, and talked to him by phone on several occasions in 1992 (negotiating my purchase of copies of his JFK assassination slides). And in one conversation in particular, before we closed the deal to buy his slides, Willis told me that he actually took his 5th photo at Z-189 immediately after hearing what he considered to be the first shot.
Phillip Willis Photo # 5
Secret Service Man’s Testimony Affirms Phillip Willis’ Account
This is important: -> Philip Willis told me that after taking his 1st photo and hoearing the first shot,, he noticed that the President after being shot, slid off his seat forward and downward into the well of the car.
Willis’ statement to me was also verified by Secret Service Agent Glenn Bennett who also noticed Kennedy being struck in the back after he made a passing glance at the President after hearing the noise of the first gunshot.
In 1990, I obtained two color photos taken in the White House garage and two additional color negatives taken in the White House garage on the weekend of the JFK Assassination.
After purchasing the color photo of CE-352 from the National Archives, I noticed upon close examination that there appeared to be a hole with a bullet protruding from the rear seat that upon checking, the hole aligned with the bullet that would have entered Kennedy’s back at exactly the level of T-3 (the 3rd thoracic vertebra of his spine, i.e. between the shoulder blades.
Going back to the exact date of 11/23/1963, I personally handled the James Altgens fax photo that came across the AP Wire while I was working in the “composing room” at the Dayton Daily News. I saw the first wire copy of the ORIGINAL James Altgens photograph of JFK’s assassination, showing the President as seen through the front windshield, clutching at his throat and with Jackie offering support.
Then during the first week of December 1963, I went with Ralph McGill, syndicated columnist (for Hess and Eisenhardt) in Cincinnati to examine the Presidential limousine that had arrived in Dayton and was driven to Hess’s garage to be repaired for Lyndon Johnson, the new president..
From memory, I can recall that I talked to Willard Hess who told me that the Presidential windshield was being replaced because of some “bullet damage” to the windshield, which had been removed in Detroit prior to the limousine’s arrival at his Cincinnati garage.
Then on December 14, 1963, I purchased a copy of the Saturday Evening Post, which showed an almost complete copy of the Altgens photo in that edition. Looking closely at the photograph, I noticed what appeared to be a bullet hole just to the right of the centered rear view mirror!
In 1989, I obtained a color negative, showing the front of the limousine in the White House garage. In examining a color print I made from the negative, I noticed micro glass traces where it appeared to be the entrance area into the windshield where a spiral bullet hole is seen in the Altgens photo, which had appeared in the Saturday Evening Post edition of December 14th, 1963, noted above.
Vincent DiMaio’s “Gunshot Wounds”
In 1985, I had purchased a book called “Gunshot Wounds” by Vincent DiMaio. The book on forensic aspects of gunshot wounds dealt with wounds caused by shots that had killed individuals, fried through glass. This book proved to be very important to me.
After noticing a color photo owned by James Fox that showed near to where a tracheotomy was performed at Parkland to enhance Kennedy’s breathing. In comparing glass stippling that occurred when bullets passed through glass the bullet produced small glass shards that surrounded the point of entry, where a bullet or glass shards entered some of the bodies shown in DiMaio’s book.
It appeared to be the same or similar type of scarring that appeared around President Kennedy’s throat as it was later learned that a bullet hole entry had occurred where the tracheotomy was performed by Dr. Malcolm Perry in the Parkland Hospital Emergency Room..
This in my opinion confirms an entrance wound causing the throat wound to the President throat. The direction of the shot (frontal) through the windshield, and the scarring mentioned in DiMaio’s book and seen around the throat wound suggest that the throat wound was the result of a frontal entry shot with more solid proof supporting it (including Parkland Hospital medical witnesses, both doctors and nurses) than the SBT and the Magic Bullet Theory, which have no supporting evidence (beside the altered US Navy corpsman drawing ordered to be altered by Gerald Ford, who had the Navy artist re-render the drawing with the back wound MOVED UP 6-8 INCHES to appear to be on the neck region rather than the 3rd thoracic vertebra, between the shoulder blades.
In a LIFE Magazine article about Governor Wallace’s shooting in 1968, it was mentioned (and shown) that when the Governor was shot, a Secret Service agent was also shot in the throat from the front.. If one examines the Agent’s reactions after being shot in the throat, he reacted exactly like President Kennedy did, placing his left hand over his throat wound. The reason for this reaction was in order to be able to take a breathe IN, the man had to cover the wound entry hole, to plug it, so as to be able to take a breath IN. After taking a gasping breath in, the victim had to cough strongly to expel the air and the blood inhaled. .
This can be proven by studying certain frames of The Zapruder Film
Click the link below to study sequential frames Z-001 through Z-489, courtesy of The Deep Politics Forum
If one closely examines frame Z-222 of The Z Film, one will notice a white spot that appears embedded in the right hand corner of the Stemmons Freeway road sign (at Z-222) as the Kennedy limo emerges from behind the Stemmons road sign. If you study this frame closely, a white object appears suddenly.
That object is in truth was a white dog, a puppet or dog doll, that Jackie Kennedy had receive by hand as a gift at Love Field during that brief interaction with the crowd as they walked to the limousine..
Jean Hill (also known as "The Lady in Red") testified before Arlen Specter, Warren Commission lawyer (and "Father of the SBT") that the puppet she saw was a “white dog,” affirming having seen it in JFK's lap as the Presidential limousine approached her, and suddenly rising up into the air, immediately AFTER President Kennedy was shot.
Jean Hill testified before Arlen Specter that she had seen the “white dog” in JFK’s lap (not shown in the early parts of the doctored version of the Zapruder Film).
This white dog puppet, given to Jackie by a fan at Love Field, can be seen as a white spot that appears after the limo passes the Stemmons Freeway sign and becomes more visible as Kennedy comes into view. The apex of the rising of the white spot is seen in frame Z-230, which begs the question:
What made the white dog puppet rise up and fall back down?
The answer is that when President Kennedy was shot in the back, the President reacted very strongly, as seen by William and Gayle Newman, standing up and falling back down.
Editor's Note: -> Abraham Zapruder testified before the Warren Commission that he had seen Presdient Kennedy's head rise and "pop up" above the sign as the limousine passed behind it. This has been deleted from the Zapruder Film, excised at Z-212 ff., proven by a glaring blotch on the film, a botched edit clearly showing the cut and overlapping frames glued together. This is most obvious in the "original version" of the Z-Film released for public consumption, more recent versions have photoshopped the cut, toning it down, reducing the obvious flaw, but they have not eliminated it completely. -> M*
Warren Commission Exhibit CE-352 - Back Seat of Presidential Limousine
The "White Dog" is the object is seen rising & falling in Z Frames Z-223 through Z-227
Photo taken at Parkland Hospital shows white gog puppet discovered by Roy L. Schaeffer
in rear seat of JFK's limousine (as described by Jean Hill to Arlen Spector).
In 1992, I obtained a color photo from the National Achives, namely, CE-352. In this photo, we can see that Jean Hill observed on President Kennedy’s lap is really there in the photo. The white puppet is in the left hand corner of the bloody rear seat.
The object is, in fact, exactly what Jean Hill described as “a white dog” to Arlen Specter. The WC Counsel’s arrogant response was to tell Jean Hill:
“You’re crazy!. "
It is interesting to note that in his Warren Commission transcript of his interrogation of Jean Hill, he discussed "the white dog" at length with Hill, but nowhere does Spector mention the most mportant details, which is that Jean Hill was speaking about a white dog puppet, NOT a real white dog, thereby, subverting Jean Hill's testimony by portraying Hill as a crazed and incompetent witness
However, the object seen in CE-352 turns out to be a white stuffed animal, validating Jean Hill’s testimony, and discrediting Arlen Specter whom history is showing to be one of the masterminds of the cover-up of the murder of the President of the United States, and thereby, a co-conspirator in the assassination of JFK.
So, when we take note of the object seen in Z-230, it is clear that Kennedy had been shot at least a1/3 of a second earlier. By then closely examining frame Z-224, we can see that Governor John B. Connally showed no sign at all of having being struck by any bullet at that time.
It should be mentioned that in frame Z-224 that both Governor Connally’s lapel and Secret Service Agent William Greer’s suit lapel both flipped at the same time.
How could this happen?
In Dallas 1996, while riding in JFK’s position in Paul Crute’s 1964 Presidential reproduction Lincoln limousine convertible, as we drove by on a Dallas street a sprinkler head, watering a lawn broke off. When it did so, a jet of water from the broken head hit me. At that moment, Paul Crute tapped the brakes and I was jolted and thrust violently forward.
This showed me that the 2 simultaneous “lapel flips” could only have been caused by Secret Service Agent Bill Greer tapping on the brakes, slowing the car (as indicated by Senator Ralph Yarborough in his WCR testimony, more details below).
The flipping over of the Governor Connally’s Stetson’s hat is also explained by the same cause… Greer hit the brakes several times, sometimes slowing and twice stopping the limousine completely (as testified to by many witnesses in Dealey Plaza, most notably, Senator Ralph Yarboroug who described both stops (a “near stop” at the sign, and “a complete stop” near the Grassy Knoll “before the cavalcade got going.”
In 2003, I presented a poster board exhibiton in Pittsburgh at the 40th anniversary of Kennedy’s death. It was called: “The Case Against the Single Bullet Theory, as is this article.
In it, I present a theory that Governor Connally was first shot at Z-237 from the knoll.
My theory was backed by blood groupings appearing in photo CE-352 near where Jacqueline was sitting.
In CE-837, I noticed a knife cut in the same area to removed what I considered a bullet. Later I learned that th entire rear seat was cut up prior to it being delivered to Detroit where the windshield was destroyed.
Now, going back in time to 1993, I attended “The Midwest Symposium on Political Assassinations” inChicago, to learn more, and specifically to hear the midnight speech that Robert Morningstar presented on Gestalt psychology, which he demonstrated to have been employed to alter the Zapruder film radically.
At the same lecture, Morningstar revealed a still frame, Cray supercomputer enhanced photo of the condensation vapor trials captured in the Zapruder Film, proving that the assassination was carried out by multiple shooters some from the fron and some from behind.. Moreover, the vapor trails uncovered by Robert Morningstar also revealed the positions of the shooters, atop the Dallas County Records Building and on the Grassy Knoll.
In his presentation, Robert Morningstar showed a vapor trail that can be seen in the Zapruder Film at Frame Z-295.
This trail was seen and described as a “high head shot” seen by Secret Service Agent Glen Bennett and described in the Warren Commission report, in which Bennet described seeing “a bullet strike the right side high of the President’s head.”
I had also noticed this in the movie “JFK,” by Oliver Stone, and I traveled to Dallas 2 years later to meet Robert Morningstar at the Dallas Lancer JFK Assassination Conference. We met yet again in Dallas 2 years later in 1996 when we were both invited by Prof. James Fetzer to be part of a closed panel of JFK assassination experts who gathered together at the Lancer Conference to analyze the alterations and to “disassemble the illusions” created by the alterations used to hide the presence of multiple shooters that the undoctored, untampered version of the Z-Film really shows.
By chance, many years before, in 1958, I attended a science fair at the University of Chicago in which I presented a home-made Wilson Cloud Chamber. It was made with a one-gallon fish tank. Dry Ice in the bottom of the tank and at the top a copper plate to which I applied a hot iron to create a “Cloud Chamber.”
In it, as the iron heated up a fine water vapor mist appeared inside the fish tank. Then, using my old camera, which contained Kodachrome film, I was able to photograph Alpha and Beta particle trails (aka “Cosmic Rays”) that were revealed to be streaking through in the aquarium tank <then become a “Wilson Cloud Chamber”>. So, the “condensation trail” phenomenon is a well known one and operant from the atomic level to the molecular level in ballistics, as demonstrated by Robert Morningstar in Chicago and in Dallas.
Investigating the Dallas weather report for the morning of November 22nd, 1963, it turned out that in Dealey Plaza the morning of the assassination it had rained steadily all night, and the temperature was 37* (degrees F.) at 9:00 a.m.
But by 12:30, the Sun had broken out and the temperature rose rapidly to 68* F. with the air becoming extremely hot and humid. The high temp that day reached 70* F., rising 33* degrees in just the time it took to slay the President.
This change in temperature, as well as uncomfortable humidity was described explicitly and in detail by Jackie Kennedy during her Warren Commission testimony. Jackie stated that because she was wearing a woolen dress she was feeling very hot and in the muggy atmosphere as the air conditioning going full blast was useless in the open car.
The temperature of 67* confirmed by Willis’s photograph # 12 as the temperature was recorded on the billboard of the Hertz sign atop the TSBD.
Jackie stated to the Warren Commission that she had looked ahead and seen the Triple Underpass coming up ahead and thought of it as a welcome source of momentary shade that would relieve them for an instant from the glaring sun, the heat and the humidity.
It was within a few moments after that thought passed through her head that President Kennedy was killed as bullets from behind and from the front passed through his head, one from behind and 2 from front, and NOT from the Texas School Book Depository (TSBD).
Using this information, applied to bullets going faster than 1100 feet per second, and because Kodachrome film used by Abraham Zapruder (containing Silver halide), I found that Zapruder’s Bell & Howell Optronic Eye movie was perfectly capable of capturing a ballistic trails moving through the atmosphere and could be tracked on the film going on directly to strike the President’s skull, at Z-295 and at Z-313, which when compared to each other, prove that Z-295 came from a high position to the REAR LEFT .of the limousine, and that the shot at Z-313 came directly from Zapruder’s right side from the area of the Grassy Knoll.
All 8mm films used in 1963 by other camera men and women (Nix, Towner, Hughes, Bell, et al) also contained silver Halide in the Kodachrome film that they used to film the Presidential limousine as it traveled slowly down Elm Street on its fateful journey.
Right In closely examining frame Z-295 of the Zapurder film it becomes clear that a vapor trail appeared to hit near the right side parietal area of the President’s skull as he is hit from behind.
This bullet, as shown by Robert Morningstar in 1992, struck the top right side of the President’s head and then went on to strike Governor Connally, with the bullet, which continued on ricocheting off President Kennedy to leave another visible vapor trail showing that it continued on to strike Governor Connally in the back where it transited through his chest.
In my opinion, Frame Z-295 is the most valuable frame in the Zapruder film because it proves conclusively that Governor Connally was first struck in the back at that moment, not any earlier as assumed by the Warren Commission counsel (Arlen Specter), and thus Frame Z-295 utterly destroys the Single Bullet Theory, finally putting to rest the “Magic Bullet Fraud.”
In closing, my investigation indicates that there were (at least) six shots;
1. Z-189, President Kennedy was struck in the back from the rear, angle indicates source to be the Dal-Tex Building;
2. Z-216, a front shot through the windshield causing President Kennedy’s throat wound, a ballistic (vapor) trail can be seen over Stemmons Freeway road sign .
3. Z-237 Governor Connally’s was shot from the Front, shattering his right wrist
4. Z-295 proves that a rear shot caused Kennedy’s rear side skull wound and Governor Connally’s back through-the-torso back entry wound.
5. Z-313 head shot to Kennedy from the front from three possible locations;
6. Z-329 a shot from behind missed the President, striking the chrome strip between the two visors from the rear, causing damage to the stem holder of the rear view mirror, breaking it, with the front of the rear view mirror to be pushed inward.
April 4th, 2014
A Logical "Magic Post Script" for the Illogical "Magic Bullet"
By Robert D. Morningstar
Dedicated to Prof. James H. Fetzer , Logician
From the WCR medical and ballistics records, let us recall that the wound to Governor John Connally’s left thigh was caused by a partial bullet fragment that remained lodged and was never removed because its final resting position lay critcally close to the femoral artery, and so was left inside the Governor by doctors at Parkland Hospital.
Governor Connally carried that bullet fragment in his thigh to his very grave, and yet, CE 399, aka "The Magic Bullet," has been described by some experts who've examined it as "pristine," simply because it was (is) only slightly deformed, and with no metal missing from its composition.
This is quizzical since "found intact" means that no mass, no metal, no lead, no copper composing the missile was missing when recovered ... Hence, "Intact."
Therefore, it must be obvious that CE 399, an intact bullet, had struck nothing that could have dented, damaged, chipped or fragmented it.
Nor could a bullet that had hit nothing solid be ricocheted, deflected, redirected or "misguided" to pass through JFK and Governor Connally:
1. Striking nothing "solid" in transit, travelling unimpeded straight through JFK's back, clavicle and throat;
2. Contiue on to pass straight through Governor Connally's rib cage,
3. Moving onward "unimpeded" to shatter the radius <smaller of 2 bones in the forearm not his wrist>
4. Passing cleaanly through until it hit the Governor's wrist to be redirected once more by "nothing"
5. To end up in Connally's thigh finally "arrested" when it struck the femur, leaving lead fragments and residue that could not be removed, which aere and are visible in Connally's X-rays until the day he died (and most likely still visible if we were to exhume his body today for the next forensic investigation. Governor Connally's wrist X-rays also showed traces of lead residue.
As can be clearly seen in the closeup photo above, the "Magic Bullet" is an intact, pure (pristine) copper-jacketed bullet.
Remarkably, the only part of CE 399 that is missing today is the slice wherefrom a small sample was taken for metallurgical analysis by the FBI for "neutron activation tests" that were used to prove the bullet was Oswald's ammunition, which they did not succeed in doing despite the rigorous verbal gymanastics and the false logic employed to assign ownership to "the patsy.," Lee Harvey Oswald.
It should be noted that a bullet did fall out of Governor Connally's thigh wound while he was being wheeled to surgery. The bullet fell off the Connally stretcher hit the Parkland Hospital floor and was instantly recoeved by a nurse who pocketed it for safe keeping. Later, it was turned over to Dallas PD and then to Sheriff Wiil Frittz by the nurse who had found it.. The bullet was actually recovered by Sam Kenny, Secret Service driver of the second car, who claimed that he cut it out of the back seat with apocketknife after he found it protruding from the back cushion. In a deathbed confession to close friend, just before the 50th anniversary of the slaying(s), Kenny confessed that he had lain the bullet on the stretcher in Parkland Hospital Emergency Room, later to be found by the aforementioned nurse.
The discovery of this bullet was so devastating to the Single Bullet Theory that the Warren Commission found it necessary to discredt the tertimony Governor John Connaly himself when he refused to go along with their supposition of a single bullet creating all his wounds and those of the late Presdident.
These important details beg the question:
-> From whence came the fragment still resting in Governor Connally's thigh bone to this very day?
Fact A: CE 399 is missing no mass, no metal... <True>
Fact B: Governor Connally carried bullet fragments in his thigh and his wrist to the grave...<True>
Therefore, I would say that we hold these two truths to be self-evident,
and that together they disprove The Single Bullet Theory.