Standing Stones And Stone Circles
Extracts from my manuscript entitled ‘Life’s Journey and Earth’s Mysteries. Eighteen chapters in total. Looking for full publication of the manuscript.
In investigating the mystery of standing stones and stone circles we cannot glibly come up with theories that look fine on paper but will not work in practice, we have to look more closely to their real purpose.
The most well known stone circle is Stonehenge. The site it is claimed was built in 1750-BC. It is also said it was already an ancient place when those stones had been erected? The enormous outer circle is built from Sarsen stones, weighing around 50 tonnes each, which were brought from the Marlborough Downs, some twenty miles away from the site. The inner double circle consisting of eighty blue stones were brought to the site, some five hundred years before the Sarson stones, from the Prescelly Mountains in South Wales some 150 miles away. These weighing around 4 to 50 tonnes each were supposed to have been brought on boats by both sea and river, and then transported a few miles overland to Stonehenge.
In 1954, it was shown up to a point, that, that kind of journey could be made, when a 4 - tonne block of concrete was hauled exactly in the same manner, as the stones at Stonehenge had been done in the past. This involved 64 men pulling the concrete block on sledges and rollers. However, the experiment doesn’t prove much, for it to be totally believable then a fifty ton stone should have been tried, but this was not so. Because some methods work on a small scale, they are misleading of the greater problems that arise, when construction is done in a much larger operation.
Relatively simple methods have also been put forward as to how all the stones were then raised at the site. For instance, a hole would be dug and the stone would be placed on the ground with one end near the hole. It is then claimed that as it was pulled slowly upwards by simple ropes where then the stone would slide into the hole.
Before going further into this detailed explanation, we have to look at the sizes of the stones. As the stones at Stonehenge reach a considerable height, it makes one wonder if the calculations of their exact height, weight are correct. If not then it can add further difficulties both when they were transported and erected. If say one of the upright outer stones reaches a height of 30ft above ground there will also be a notable measurement below ground level. For the stone to be secured there it would at least have to be a further 10ft underground so the standing stone would not topple over.
When any kind of construction like that takes place the heaviest and largest part of the stone would be underground, to give it more support. Bearing all that in mind if the larger stones above ground are estimated to be fifty tons then with the extra length and weight underground makes the task of erecting those stones that much harder. The overall height of some stones could be over 50ft and weighing 60 tons or more.
We will imagine that it is a fifty ton stone to be erected. First as stated the stone was placed flat on the ground with wooden rollers underneath. The next step would be to raise the top end of the stone so it would then slide into the hole. Ropes would have to be used for this task, but they would not be of the quality or the strength of ropes made today, so that would have been a problem. To complete this task then a temporary wooden scaffold would have to be placed over the hole. This would be so the ropes could be thrown over it in order for them to be at the right angle to lift the stone upright. This would have to be a sturdy structure because of the enormous pressure placed upon it from the weight of the stone as it was being raised.
To understand some of the problems in this task of erecting the stones, again in my experience of the building trade I carried out this kind of construction but on a much smaller scale when erecting concrete fencing posts; and the procedure is the same. The posts I used were 6 feet in height weighing around 2 hundredweight. I laid out the first post flat on the ground with one end being placed as near to the edge of the already dug out hole. I then had to lift up the top end of the post, until it reached an angle where it then slid into the hole.
The problem at this point is, when the post begins to slide it is difficult to control and nine times out of ten, it will hit the far side of the hole, where it then stops sliding and becomes wedged in the soil. It then has to be pulled back a little and at the same time pushed up to get a steeper angle, so it will then slide to the bottom of the hole. Without pulling it back, and to keep lifting it upward the post would only wedge deeper into the soil at the far side. Even if a strong thick slab was placed to catch the stone from digging into the soil at the far side of the hole it would just break the slab making the situation worse.
In erecting this 6-foot post, 2 feet is usually sunk into the hole while the other four-foot remains above ground level. This means the post is top heavy and the only permanent way of securing it, is to concrete it in position. If this were not done, then the wind and the rain would eat away at the soil at the top of the hole, until the post becomes insecure, where then it would begin to lean. Having given you that knowledge of how to fix a fencing post, then just imagine trying to erect one of the stones at Stonehenge that weighs 50 tons or over and reaching a height of 60 feet or more. In that construction, it would involve the same procedure, as I have just described with the concrete post.
To begin the lifting process of a 50 tonne stone at Stonehenge then ropes slung over a wooden lifting frame would not start to lift the top end of the stone from the ground, no matter how many people were involved in that procedure. It is what is known as dead weight, the stone being impossible to lift the stone from the ground at that angle. It would take a very large machinery today to achieve such a task.
Pictures of this procedure have been roughly sketched in the past in certain magazines such as the ‘Unexplained’. They showed that by pulling on the rope to a certain height they then placed wooden platforms underneath the stone, these being similar to the wooden pallets that are used today in transporting certain goods. Of course they would have to be far stronger than the flimsily pallets of today that do not support much weight when loaded. In addition, the question arises did they have strong nails to fix the pallets together, for to bind them with just rope would not have been adequate? The pallets were roughly six foot square and being around a foot in thickness.
The theory claims that as the stone was slowly raised to different levels the pallets then would take the weight of the stone for a brief time as it was lowered on to them, so the workers could regain a different position to lift the stone to a higher level. As the stone rose the pallets would take a pyramid shape, when the pallets reached a certain level the stone would then slide into the hole. Of course no experiment has been done on this theory for it simply would not work; the weight of the stone would crush the pallets and also push them over.
Once the standing stones had been erected the next procedure would be to place on top of them the cross sections or what could be termed as lintels. Again in the drawings it shows wooden platforms made from poles being placed on top of each other. Though the stones weigh less perhaps six-seven tons, with being in the building trade that method looks alright on paper but in practice it simply would not work. As I explained earlier about the theory of being able to walk to the moon on a ladder on paper it works but in realty it is not possible to do.
A few suggestions have been put forward as to why Stonehenge was built; one is that it was a burial ground? This belief has come about because a small amount of human bones have been found there. They however could have belonged to one of the workers who had died in the construction? If it had been, a burial ground then there would be the remains of countless bodies that should have been discovered by now?
Animal remains have also been found at the site, it was then thought animal sacrifices had been made in some kind of religious ceremonies? Again this could simply have meant that one of the people who built Stonehenge had a dog and it just died, of natural causes. If it were a place for animal sacrifice; then again, many skeletons would have been unearthed of those creatures.
In looking at those two theories, they do not make much sense. They say that it took three hundred years to build Stonehenge. That seems a ridiculous length of time to build a burial ground. Just imagine all the people who had died before being completed. It would have been quicker just to build a graveyard.
I must say here that when reading some articles in magazines and watching programs on TV such as time team, when the smallest of bones have been unearthed, archeologists have jumped to the conclusion that animal sacrifice has taken place. Because they have unearthed a small fragment of bone which has been black or discolored does not mean that to be so. Could it not have been that people in those days killed animals to eat the same as we do today, and then discarded the bones that became buried underground?
Besides Stonehenge, there are another 900 circles in Britain alone, such as what is known as the Rollright stones situated 20 miles North West of Oxford. There is another stone circle at Brogar, which lies between Loch Sternness and the Loch of Harray. The circle measures 115 yards in diameter with stones reaching up to a height of 15 feet.
There are also many standing stones and circles scattered around the world. Such as the Menhirs at Carnac in Brittany, France. The stone rings in Northern Africa the standing stones in North America. There are the carved stones of India, rings of stones in Mexico, the dolmens near the borders of Tibet, a stone circle in China near the Yangtze River. And the megaliths in Japan. There is the enormous stone complex at Tiahuanaco near Lake Titicaca in the Andes of Bolivia.
There is another impressive ancient site similar to Stonehenge situated at the top of the Golan Heights in Israel, which is called Gilgal Refaim. This is constructed of 5 concentric stone rings whose diameter is 155 metres. The outermost ring reaches a height of 2 meters and its thickness being 3.3 meters. These and many more are scattered all over the world, therefore we have to look at their true purpose.
As with the pyramid building stone circles and standing stones were built around the world at a time when communication between each country was not as it is today. Archaeologists in trying to understand the creation of these stone sites can only interpret their purpose and meaning in to there very limited knowledge of the ancient past. They will only come up with theories that will embrace their ideas of how ancient people conducted there lives, believing they were primitive.
There are anomalous phenomena in the creation of stone circles and the standing stones. A Dr Gerald S Hawkins a scientist many years ago in his research proved by electronic computer that Stonehenge was once utilized by the ancients as an astronomical computer of precise accuracy. The second important discovery is that Stonehenge is a link in a gigantic ‘power network’
Also a John Williams a solicitor of Abergavenny Monmouthshire studied the relationship of more than 3,000 standing stones and stone circles on ordinance survey maps. His calculations proved that all the stone circles and standing stones are aligned to each other up to a 32km 180m distance with twenty three and a half degree angle.
Again in the rest of this chapter it goes into great detail of how all other theories put forward as to how and why they built are not accurately correct. It was within the knowledge of the extra terrestrials who knew that the earth along with their planets have natural signals of communication within all aspects of nature including stones. Today we have many means of communicating with people over long distances one being the ordinary land line. In the times of the ancients they also had means of communication to certain parts of the world using the energy systems within stones.
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